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Researchers from London reported at the Ninth European Conference on AIDS, held in October in Warsaw, that the most common symptoms of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome'the name given to the condition when a rebuilt immune system begins to fight ailments'are flare-ups of herpes, caused by the herpes simplex virus, and genital warts, caused by the human papillomavirus. A study of 199 HIV-positive people who commenced an antiretroviral regimen showed that 22% of the patients experienced IRIS and that 78% of the IRIS symptoms reported were dermatological. Genital herpes flare-ups accounted for half of the dermatological conditions, with the appearance of genital warts accounting for 24%. Also, hepatitis B and tuberculosis each was seen in 2% of patients experiencing IRIS. The researchers recommend that doctors screen their HIV-positive patients starting an anti-HIV regimen for herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis infection and that they watch for any dermatological symptoms.