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The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has launched a five-year study to examine the safety and outcomes of organ transplants in HIV-positive adults. The study will be conducted at 17 centers and will involve 275 HIV-positive men and women. NIAID officials approved the study because as more HIV-positive adults live longer lives because of successful antiretroviral treatment, the need for liver and kidney transplants due to complications from other diseases is rising. Previous studies have shown anti-HIV drugs to enable most HIV-positive people to be healthy enough to benefit from the surgeries and tolerate the immune-suppressing drugs that they must take. Most health insurance companies, however, continue to refuse to pay for transplant surgeries for HIV-positive clients because of the alleged health risks to the organ recipients and because of a lack of scientific data showing long-term benefits from the surgeries.